Takarazuka: Sexual government and you will common culture inside the modern The japanese, Berkeley and you will Los angeles : School off Ca Drive

17. From inside the battle, government entities marketed old-fashioned hairdos and fashions for everyone their sufferers; for females, small, bowl-molded haircuts and you may loose-fitting, high-waisted monpe shorts (aren’t used in the country) was in fact advised since body gestures of austerity, modesty and you may family side support into full conflict effort. To possess a reason and you will studies of wartime shojo depictions into the shojo zasshi, select Imada Erika, 2007, pp. 57–83. To have meanings regarding wartime styles and hair styles to have mature female, select Wakakuwa, 2000 Wakakuwa, Midori . 2000 . Senso ga tsukuru joseizo: Dai niji sekai taisenka no Nihon josei doin no shikakuteki puropaganda, Tokyo : Chikuma gakugei bunko . [Bing Pupil] and you can Atkins, 2005 Atkins, Jacqueline . 2005 . “ Extravagance ‘s the enemy: Manner and you can materials in wartime Japan, when you look at the Jacqueline Atkins ”. When you look at the Wearing propaganda: Textiles towards the family front within the Japan, Britain, plus the United states, 1931–1945, 157 – 169 . The newest Refuge and London area : Yale College Force . [Google Scholar] .

18. Tanabe, ‘Shojo shosetsu ni muchu datta koro’, from Bara zero kobeya yori, reprinted for the Honda, 1991 Honda, Masuko . 1991 . “ Senjika zero shojo zasshi, in Otsuka Eiji ”. Inside Shojo zasshi ron, Tokyo : Tokyo shoseki . [Google Pupil] , pp. 36–37.

19. Tale away from Young Lawn, the latest translated Japanese title regarding Louisa Get Alcott’s Absolutely nothing Ladies. The new identity Wakakusa Monogatari was adopted when the movie is found into the The japanese inside 1934; before blogged translations and you will adaptations regarding Alcott’s classic received additional headings.

20. Other designs out of shojo recreation, specifically this new Takarazuka Revue, will also have considering an unit for the ideal kid having the types of the brand new danso zero reijin[breathtaking lady inside male outfits], this new otokoyaku. Takarazuka not simply expanded a dedicated shojo group of followers from the wartime and postwar years, however, was searched frequently during the shojo zasshi, particularly Shojo zero tomo. Getting a conclusion and you will historic/anthropological investigation of the Takarazuka Revue, discover Robertson, 1998 Robertson, Jennifer . 1998 . [Crossref] , [Google Student] .

21. As far back as the latest 1910s, educators and you may moral advocates regarded as movie theatres while the reproduction cause of the brand new furyo, otherwise once the furyo’s bing search cause of their jogakusei subjects. Particular girls’ universities put rigid requirements for the people exactly who wanted to sit-in motion picture theatres, otherwise banned attendance outright. See Inagaki, 2007 Inagaki, Kyoko . japan cupid desktop 2007 . Jogakko to jogakusei: kyoyo, tashinami, modan bunka, Tokyo : Chuo koron shinsha . [Yahoo Beginner] , pp. 142–forty-two.

Note: because the postcard respondent (and/or publisher) utilized an alternative spelling (Wakagusa rather than Wakakusa), the high quality spelling and pronunciation is actually Wakakusa

22. The fresh new intimate overtones out-of revealing an umbrella provides prewar and very early wartime precedents. Discover Kawabata Yasunari’s short story, ‘Amagasa’ (Umbrella) out-of 1932, which has a great romantically recharged scene away from a few youths discussing an enthusiastic umbrella. My thanks to Jan Bardsley for citing so it connection.

23. Select ‘Civilizing “Degenerate” Students’, inside Ambaras, 2006 Ambaras, David . 2006 . Crappy youthfulness: Juvenile delinquency therefore the politics of everyday life when you look at the modern Japan, Berkeley and you will La : University off California Push . [Google College student] , pp. 66–96.

twenty four. Brand new payment alter signifies figures out-of 1946–fifty as opposed to 1936–forty (Lunden, 1953 Lunden, Walter Good. 1953 . Teenager delinquency within the Japan. Pre-war, conflict, and post-combat age . The Record out-of Unlawful Laws, Criminology, and you can Cops Science, 44(4): 428 – 432 . November-December [Crossref] , [Google Pupil] , p. 430).

The only exception on intercourse-segregated system out-of article-number one training regarding the Meiji period towards the wartime months are the fresh coeducational Tokyo Musical School [Tokyo ongaku gakko]

7. I evaluate this type of depictions in more detail from the wartime section from inside the my dissertation towards the shojo zasshi:‘The Women’s a level: Representations of Womanliness and you can Adolescence for the Japanese Girls’ Magazines, 1930s-1960s’ (PhD Dissertation, Stanford University, 2008).

16. See Inagaki, 2007 Inagaki, Kyoko . 2007 . Jogakko so you can jogakusei: kyoyo, tashinami, modan bunka, Tokyo : Chuo koron shinsha . [Yahoo College student] , p. 207.

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